What happens if it is refused?
If the visa is an offshore visa (eg. Tourist visa, offshore General Skilled Migration visa, or Student visa), then there is no right of appeal. If it is an onshore visa, or if there is an onshore sponsor, then yes it may be appealed at the Migration Review Tribunal (MRT). The MRT is independent of the Department, and will overturn decisions if they are proved to be incorrect. Please read this: https://www.downundervisa.com.au/2014/01/25/australian-visa-refused-what-should-you-do/